Today the amount of end-of-life (EoL) batteries from e-mobility and stationary applications is still limited. Moreover, EoL batteries are not standardised (form, chemical composition, etc.) and consequently, their management and recycling are mainly based on manual process. This increases risk of accidents as the integrity of the batteries / cells is no longer guaranteed.
Within next several years, the amount of EoL batteries will surge, transforming the recycling and battery value chain in general. It is important to develop efficient recycling chain and processes able to meet these upcoming amounts of diversified waste streams. A general approach to recycling should thus be reconsidered and new sustainable recycling chain for batteries should be established, in terms of introducing novel approaches to products, processes and keeping in mind their socio-economic viability and environmental impact